发布时间:2014-01-22  来源:公共外语教学部 






Unit 1  Learning a Foreign Language

reward  rewarding  frustrate  junior  positive     senior  former  unlike intimidate  opportunity  online  communication  medium  modem  access  participate  virtual  commitment  discipline  minimum  assignment  embarrass  embarrassing  frustration  post  continual  continually  reap  benefit  insight    communicate  favorite  gap




Unit 3  A Good Heart to Lean On

lean  balance  severe  severely     cripple  inward  inwardly  bother  coordinate  halt  impatient  pace  adjust  subway  despite  nasty  wagon  cling   rail  handrail  tunnel  amaze  subject  stress  complaint  envy  owner  precise  precisely  engage  local  knowledgeable  occasion  punch  shove  content  aid  unaided  kid  urge  dive reluctance  worthy  unworthy  regret  complain  trifle  envious




Unit 4  How to Make a Good Impression

impression  conscious  consciously  reaction  range  introduction  spouse interview  encounter  focus  persuasive  presentation  physical  rate  pitch  tone  absorbed  stride  impress  shake  handshake  consistent  consistently  address  match  depress  depressed  audience  contact  relax  relaxed  lighten  powerful  entertainment  roar  brood




Unit 10  Being Honest and Open

demonstrate  integrity  morality  boundary  convenience  inner  compass  scarce  triangle  consist  firm  firmly  surgical  assistance  ensure  instrument  sponge  assure  protest  concede  intelligent  clarity  appoint  progressive  progressively  dwarf  giant  genuine  core  rely  external  inevitable  inevitably  preserve  tough  mature  conscience  component  enrich  fashionable  yield  tempt  attraction  rear 




Unit 1  Learning a Foreign Language


1. Learning a foreign language was one of the most difficult yet most rewarding experiences of my life. Although at times learning a language was frustrating, it was well worth the effort.


2. My experience with learning a foreign language began in junior middle school, when I took my first English class. I had a kind and patient teacher who often praised all of the students. Because of this positive method, I eagerly answered all the questions I could, never worrying much about making mistakes. I was at the top of my class for two years.


3. When I went to senior middle school, I was eager to continue studying English; however, my experience in senior middle school was very different from before. While my former teacher had been patient with all of the students, my new teacher quickly punished those who gave incorrect answers. Whenever we answered incorrectly, she pointed a long stick at us and, shaking it up and down, shouted, "No! No! No!" It didn't take me long to lose my eagerness to answer questions. Not only did I lose my joy in answering questions, but I also lost my desire to say anything at all in English.


4. However, that state didn't last long. When I went to college, I learned that all students were required to take an English course. Unlike my senior middle school teacher, my college English teachers were patient and kind, and none of them carried long, pointed sticks! The situation was far from perfect, though. As our classes were very large, I was only able to answer a couple of questions in each class period. Also, after a few weeks of classes, I noticed there were many students who spoke much better than I did. I began to feel intimidated. So, once again, although for different reasons, I was afraid to speak. It seemed my English was going to stay at the same level forever.


5. That was the situation until a couple of years later when I was offered an opportunity to study English through an online course. The communication medium was a computer, a phone line, and a modem. I soon got access to the necessary equipment, learned how to use the technology from a friend and participated in the virtual classroom 5 to 7 days a week.


6. Online learning is not easier than regular classroom study; it requires a lot of time, commitment and discipline to keep up with the flow of the course. I worked hard to meet the minimum standards set by the course and to complete assignments on time.


7. I practiced all the time. I carried a little dictionary with me everywhere I went, as well as a notebook in which I listed any new words I heard. I made many, sometimes embarrassing, mistakes. Once in a while I cried out of frustration, and sometimes I felt like giving up. But I didn't feel intimidated by students who spoke faster than I did because I took all the time I needed to think out my ideas and wrote a reply before posting it on the screen. Then, one day I realized I could understand just about everything I came across, and most importantly, I could "say" anything I wanted to in English. Although I was still making many mistakes and was continually learning new ways to say things, I had finally reaped the benefits of all of my hard work.


8. Learning a foreign language has been a most trying experience for me, but one that I wouldn't trade for anything. Not only did learning another language teach me the value of hard work, but it also gave me insights into another culture, and my mind was opened to new ways of seeing things. The most wonderful result of having learned a foreign language was that I could communicate with many more people than before. Talking with people is one of my favorite activities, so being able to speak a new language lets me meet new people, participate in conversations, and form new, unforgettable friendships. Now that I speak a foreign language, instead of staring into space when English is being spoken, I can participate and make friends. I am able to reach out to others and bridge the gap between my language and culture and theirs.



Unit 3  A Good Heart to Lean On


1. When I was growing up, I was embarrassed to be seen with my father. He was severely crippled and very short, and when we walked together, his hand on my arm for balance, people would stare. I would inwardly struggle at the unwanted attention. If he ever noticed or was bothered, he never let on.


2. It was difficult to coordinate our steps—his halting, mine impatient—and because of that, we didn't say much as we went along. But as we started out, he always said, "You set the pace. I will try to adjust to you."


3. Our usual walk was to or from the subway on which he traveled to work. He went to work sick, and despite nasty weather. He almost never missed a day, and would make it to the office even if others could not. It was a matter of pride.


4. When snow or ice was on the ground, it was impossible for him to walk, even with help. At such times my sisters or I would pull him through the streets of Brooklyn, N.Y., on a child's wagon with steel runners to the subway entrance. Once there, he would cling to the handrail until he reached the lower steps that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice. In Manhattan the subway station was in the basement of his office building, and he would not have to go outside again until we met him in Brooklyn on his way home.


5. When I think of it now, I am amazed at how much courage it must have taken for a grown man to subject himself to such shame and stress. And at how he did it — without bitterness or complaint.


6. He never talked about himself as an object of pity, nor did he show any envy of the more fortunate or able. What he looked for in others was a "good heart", and if he found one, the owner was good enough for him.


7. Now that I am older, I believe that is a proper standard by which to judge people, even though I still don't know precisely what a "good heart" is. But I know at times I don't have one myself.


8. Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. When a local baseball team found itself without a manager, he kept it going. He was a knowledgeable baseball fan and often took me to Ebbets Field to see the Brooklyn Dodgers play. He liked to go to dances and parties, where he could have a good time just sitting and watching.


9. On one occasion a fight broke out at a beach party, with everyone punching and shoving. He wasn't content to sit and watch, but he couldn't stand unaided on the soft sand. In frustration he began to shout, "I'll fight anyone who will sit down with me! I'll fight anyone who will sit down with me!"


10. Nobody did. But the next day people kidded him by saying it was the first time any fighter was urged to take a dive before the fight began.


11. I now know he participated in some things through me, his only son. When I played ball (poorly), he "played" too. When I joined the Navy, he "joined" too. And when I came home on leave, he saw to it that I visited his office. Introducing me, he was really saying, "This is my son, but it is also me, and I could have done this, too, if things had been different." Those words were never said aloud.


12. He has been gone many years now, but I think of him often. I wonder if he sensed my reluctance to be seen with him during our walks. If he did, I am sorry I never told him how sorry I was, how unworthy I was, how I regretted it. I think of him when I complain about trifles, when I am envious of another's good fortune, when I don't have a "good heart".


13. At such times I put my hand on his arm to regain my balance, and say, "You set the pace. I will try to adjust to you."



Unit 4  How to Make a Good Impression


1. Research shows we make up our minds about people through unspoken communication within seven seconds of meeting them. Consciously or unconsciously, we show our true feelings with our eyes, faces, bodies and attitudes, causing a chain of reactions, ranging from comfort to fear.


2. Think about some of your most unforgettable meetings: an introduction to your future spouse, a job interview, an encounter with a stranger. Focus on the first seven seconds. What did you feel and think? How did you "read" the other person? How do you think he read you?


3. You are the message. For 25 years I've worked with thousands who want to be successful. I've helped them make persuasive presentations, answer unfriendly questions, communicate more effectively. The secret has always been you are the message.


4. Others will want to be with you and help you if you use your good qualities. They include: physical appearance, energy, rate of speech, pitch and tone of voice, gestures, expression through the eyes, and the ability to hold the interest of others.

Others form an impression about you based on these.


5. Think of times when you know you made a good impression. What made you successful? You were committed to what you were talking about and so absorbed in the moment you lost all self-consciousness.


6. Be yourself. Many how-to books advise you to stride into a room and impress others with your qualities. They instruct you to greet them with "power handshakes" and tell you to fix your eyes on the other person. If you follow all this advice, you'll drive everyone crazy—including yourself.


7. The trick is to be consistently you, at your best. The most effective people never change from one situation to another. They're the same whether they're having a conversation, addressing their garden club or being interviewed for a job. They communicate with their whole being; the tones of their voices and their gestures match their words.


8. Public speakers, however, often send mixed messages. My favorite is the kind who say, "Ladies and gentlemen, I'm very happy to be here"—while looking at their shoes. They don't look happy. They look angry, frightened or depressed.


9. The audience always believe what they see over what they hear. They think, "He's telling me he's happy, but he's not. He's not being honest."


10. Use your eyes. Whether you're talking to one person or one hundred, always remember to look at them. Some people start to say something while looking right at you, but three words into the sentence, they break eye contact and look out the window.


11. As you enter a room, move your eyes comfortably; then look straight at those in the room and smile. Smiling is important. It shows you are relaxed. Some think entering a room full of people is like going into a lion's cage. I disagree. If I did agree, I certainly wouldn't look at my feet or at the ceiling. I'd keep my eyes on the lion!


12. Lighten up. Once in a staff meeting, one of the most powerful chairmen in the entertainment industry became very angry over tiny problems, scolded each worker and enjoyed making them fear him. When he got to me, he shouted, "And you, Ailes, what are you doing?"


13. I said, "Do you mean now, this evening or for the rest of my life?" There was a moment of silence. Then the chairman threw back his head and <36>roared</36> with laughter. Others laughed too. Humor broke the stress of a very uncomfortable scene.


14. If I had to give advice in two words, it would be "lighten up"! You can always see people who take themselves too seriously. Usually they are either brooding or talking a great deal about themselves.


15. Take a good hard look at yourself. Do you say "I" too often? Are you usually focused on your own problems? Do you complain frequently? If you answered yes to even one of these questions, you need to lighten up. To make others comfortable, you have to appear comfortable yourself. Don't make any huge changes; just be yourself.

You already have within you the power to make a good impression, because nobody can be you as well as you can.



Unit 10  Being Honest and Open


1. My grandparents believed that you were either honest or you were not. There was no middle ground. They had a simple saying hanging on their living-room wall: "Life is like a field of newly fallen snow. Where I choose to walk every step will show." They didn't have to talk about it; they demonstrated this truth in their lifestyle. 


2. They understood instinctively that integrity involves having a personal standard of morality and boundaries that does not sell out to convenience and that is not relative to the situation at hand. Integrity is an inner compass for judging your behavior. 


3. Unfortunately, integrity is in short supply today—and getting scarcer. But it is the real bottom line in every area of society and a discipline we must demand of ourselves. A good test for this value is to apply what I call the "Integrity Triangle", which consists of three key principles: 


4. Stand firmly for your convictions when confronted with personal pressure. There's a story told about a surgical nurse's assistance during her first day on the medical team at a well-known hospital. She was responsible for ensuring that all surgical instruments and materials were accounted for during an operation. The nurse said to the surgeon, "You've only removed 11 sponges, and we used 12. We need to find the last one." 


5."I removed them all," the surgeon assured her. "We'll close now." 


6"You can't do that, sir," protested the nurse. "Think of the patient." 


7. Smiling, the surgeon lifted his foot and showed the nurse the twelfth sponge. "You'll do just fine in this or any other hospital," he assured her.


8. When you know you're right, you can't concede. 


9. Always give others credit that is rightfully theirs. Don't be afraid of those who might have a better idea or who might even be more intelligent than you are. 


10. David Ogilvy, founder of the advertising firm Ogilvy & Mather, clarified this point to his newly appointed office heads by sending each of them a Russian nesting doll with five progressively smaller figures inside. 


11. His message was contained in the smallest doll: If each of us hires people who are smaller than we are, we shall become a company of dwarfs. But if each of us hires people who are bigger than we are, Ogilvy & Mather will become a company of giants. And that is precisely what O & M became—one of the largest and most respected advertising organizations in the world. 


12. Be honest and open about who you really are. People who lack genuine core values rely on external factors—their looks or status—in order to feel good about themselves. Inevitably they will do everything they can to preserve this false mask, but they will do very little to enhance their inner value and personal growth. 


13. So be yourself. Don't engage in a personal cover-up of areas that are unpleasing in your life. "Tough times never last but tough people do," says Robert Schuller. In other words, face reality and be mature in your responses to life's challenges. 


14. Self-respect and a clear conscience are powerful components of integrity and are the basis for enriching your relationships with others. Integrity means you do what you do because it's right and not just fashionable or politically correct. A life of principle, of not yielding to the tempting attractions of an easy morality, will always win the day. It will take you forward into the twenty-first century without having to check your tracks in a rear-view mirror. My grandparents taught me that. 






Unit 1

1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of learning English online.

2. Share your experience of learning English with your classmates.

3. What do you think is the most effective way to learn English, and why?


Unit 3

1. How do you look at the writer concerning his way of treating his father? (Unit 3 A Good Heart to Lean on)

2. What do you think is a good heart?

3. What do you learn from the writer’s father? (Unit 3 A Good Heart to Lean on)


Unit 4

1. How do you think of the tips on making a good impression given in the text? (Unit 4 How to Make a Good Impression)

2. Discuss the importance of a first good impression.

3. If you were to go to an interview, what would you do to make a good impression?


Unit 10

1. Share your understanding of the “Integrity Triangle” with your classmates.

2. Is honesty out of style? Give your reasons.

3. How do you see the problem of cheating on exam?


备注:口语考试分三个部分:第一部分 单词朗读(30%);第二部分 课文朗读(30%);第三部分 简答题(40%)。  



















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